Introduction The Principle of the Conservation of Energy states that "energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be transduced from one form to another". All energy transductions release heat energy; and when this is transferred to the surroundings, it is described as 'low-grade' and is usually considered to be 'lost'.
Not surprisingly, both the loss of heat energy and its control is of practical importance in industry, machines, laboratory experiments, homes, and in living organisms. Accordingly, a detailed knowledge of the effects of the independent variables involved in the rate of heat energy transfer is of similar importance.
Quite reasonably, one might expect these variables to include the method of energy transfer (e.g., conduction, convection, or radiation), the substances involved (and their surface areas), and the temperature gradient between the system and its surroundings ...
In this investigation, within a temperature gradient range of 5-48C,
you are required to examine the effect of temperature gradient on the
rate of energy transfer.
1.  You will need to use the equations  H = m  c  DT  and  P = H  t,
where: H is the heat energy transferred; m is the mass of substance; c
is its specific heat capacity; DT is the temperature change; P, power,
is the rate of heat energy transfer; and t is the time.
2. You are provided with sources of hot and cold water, crushed ice, measuring cylinders, a 100 cm glass beaker, a 250 cm plastic beaker, a 0-50C thermometer, and a clock. In addition, you may need to use - within reason - other suitable apparatus.
3. The proposed plan of your investigation should be presented in detail; this plan may be modified as the investigation proceeds.
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