BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE REVEREND DOCTOR GABRIEL D'ÉMILLIANE [A minister in Charles and Calvert Counties, Maryland, from 1701 to 1714; collated by Dr. Roger Peters.]

1. Gabriel d'Emilliane, The Frauds of Romish Monks and Priests, Set Forth in Eight Letters Lately Written by a Gentleman in his Journey into Italy; and Published for the Benefit of the Publick, Clavell, London, 1691; transcription en français.

2. Here follows biographical details about d'Émilliane, on the evidence of the eight letters forming the aforementioned tract:

(8° L.) «... in France where I received my education ...»;

(To the Reader) «... Having been a secular priest in the Roman Catholic Church ...»;

(1° L.) «... I had gone to see one of my brothers who was a monk of this abbey [Saint-Bénigne in Dijon] ...» (From the internal evidence, this meeting occurred in autumn 1680.);

(5° L.) «... I lived seven years in that country [Italy] ...»;

(8° L.) «... I was present when the Cardinal [Cesare Facchinetti] opened the letter ...» (Thus before 31st January 1683, when His Eminence died.);

(5° L.) «... For this purpose I will take one of those that I saw in the famous abbey of San Michele in Bosco in Bologna, where I taught for two years ... The [religious] feast occurred on a Friday [13th August 1683, in Italy] ...»;

(8° L.) «... Being in Venice ... endowed with three small benefices in three different churches ... After a stay of three years there, ...»;

(8° L.) «... I had several positions in Italy and in Germany, ...»;

(3° L.) «... And when I crossed Germany to come to England, ...»;

(6° L.) «... After which I noticed that these Jesuits undertook to force me to leave London. For this purpose, as they could not execute same openly by force, and I kept myself very much on my guard, they placed a goodly number of cut-throats and thieves on my tail, who followed me everwhere in order to surprise me: but as I never ventured onto the streets at night, these good missionaries could not execute their designs; and the Revolution [of November 1688] which followed shortly after, forced them to think of something else ...».

3. And here follows several biographical details about Gabriel d'Émilliane (c. 1655-1714), abstracted verbatim from diverse published and manuscript sources (please note the various spellings of his name).

(a) Istoria delle crociate per la liberazione di Terra Santa dal r.p. Luigi Maimburgo della Compagnia di Giesu. Tomo primo. Trasportata dal francese all'italiano da d. Gabriele d'Emilliane, sacerdote parigino, dottore teologo, Venezia, Piazzola, 1684 — «History of the Crusades for the Deliverance of the Holy Land [Histoire des croisades pour la délivrance de la Terre-Sainte, 2 vols., Mabre-Cramoisy, Paris, 1675-76] by the Rev. Father Louis Maimbourg [1610-1686] of the Company of Jesus. Volume I. Transposed from the French to the Italian by Father Gabriel d'Emilliane, Parisian priest, Doctor of Theology»; the author indirectly refers to this translation in the second letter of The Frauds of Romish Monks and Priests, cited above.

(b) Parish and Probate Records (Canterbury - Marriage Licences issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1679-1694). «11 July 1689 Gabriel d'Emilliane, of St James, Westminster, Clerk [cleric], Bachr, abt 34, & Mrs Mary Vanhack, of St Swithin's, Lond., Spr, abt 26, with consent of her father; at St Swithin's.»

(c) Gabriel d'Emillanne, Observations on a Journey to Naples. Wherein the Frauds of Romish Monks and Priests are Farther Discover'd, Clavell, London, 1691; the author refers to this journey in the eighth letter of The Frauds of Romish Monks and Priests, cited above.

(d) Gabriel d'Emillanne, A Short History of Monastical Orders, in which the Primitive Institution of Monks, their Tempers, Habits, Rules, and the Condition they are in at Present, are Treated of, Clavell, London, 1693.

(e) Arthur Tindal Hart, The Curate's Lot, Baker, London, 1970, pp. 93-98: «... Gabriel d'Emillane, assistant curate of St. Margaret's, Westminster, towards the end of the [17th] century, a French Protestant refugee, who had taken Anglican orders, was most cruelly used by his employer, Dr. Nicholas Onely, prebendary of Westminster Abbey and 'curate-in-charge' of St. Margaret's. Gabriel's case, as he later presented it to his friend, Bishop Lloyd of Worcester, who was then Lord High Almoner, is so heart-rending as to warrant quotation in full.

The case between the Rector Dr. Onely and Gabriel d'Emilliane his curate in St. Margaret's Parish Westminster.

When Dr. Onely desired me about four years and a half ago to come to be his curate, ... [Then follows the substance of this measured and nuanced exposition of about 2,000 words to Bishop Lloyd, chaplain to King William III.] ... Gabriel d'Emilliane*

* The manuscript (Lloyd-Baker Sharp mss. Box 4. Bundle W.57) is undated.»

(According to the aforementioned exposition, probably written during the course of the legal year starting 25th March 1700: Dr. Onely paid d'Emilliane £40 per year, but charged him £12 for the use of the vicarage and more than 30 shillings for its maintenance, and laid claim to all the monetary gifts; the said doctor used the ruse of constructive dismissal to turn out d'Emilliane and «his family of five persons» from the vicarage by the following Lady Day; and d'Emilliane's wife, «a sickly woman», could no longer teach «a small school of girls» to supplement the housekeeping.)

(f) Manuscripts' Catalogue of the British Library: Add. 38175 (Certificates of penance, etc. either for scandalous words or for immoral conduct, ordered by the consistory courts (a) of Westminster, 20 Mar. 1670-11 Jan. 1713. ff. l-24; (b) ...); «Emilliane (Gabriel de). Curate o., St Margaret's, Westminster. Certificates of penance signed by 1697-1700. Add. 38715 ff. 11, 13, 15, 18.»

(g) Arthur Tindal Hart, op. cit., p. 94: «... He [d'Emilliane] subsequently in 1701 migrated to America with the help of Dr. Bray, the bishop of London's commissary for Maryland, who procured him a special grant of £133 12s. 10d. 'for his own subsistence and to purchase two Negroes to stock his glebe, he having a family'. He served Port Tobacco Parish, Charles County, Maryland, for two years before becoming incumbent of Christ Church, Calvert County, where he died in 1714.»

(h) The Library of Virginia: Virginia Colonial Records Project, SR 06488 (Admiralty: Board's Minutes, 7 June 1700 - 30 June 1701): «Sat. 5 April 1701 (A.M.): Mons. Emilian and his son Charles to have passage to Virginia in the ship bound thither.»

(i) Subscription Evidence Record (ID 78262) for Henry Compton, Bishop of London 1676-1713 [Source: Bodl., MS Rawl. b. 375 (Subscription Book)]: «Gabriel d'Emilliane, appointed on April 11, 1701, as minister in Mary-Land.»

(j) The Library of Virginia: Virginia Colonial Records Project, SR 07774 (Orders & Instructions, Commissioners of the Admiralty, 9 April 1701 - 26 January 1702): «17 Apr. 1701. Orders to Captain Moody, Commander of H. M. ship, the Southampton. ... The like to carry Mr. Gabriell D'Emilliane together with his son Charles to Virginia.»

(k) Papers of Thomas Bray (Series I: Documents, 1697-1705), Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries: Box 16 Folder 1 — «A Catalogue of Books sent with Mr. Demilian, April 24, 1701, on Board the Southampton man of Warr Capt. Moody Comr. Bound for Virginia to found a library at Nangemy in Charles County, Maryland — (Theological subjects. Receipt by Gabriel D'Emilliane), 1701»; Box 17 Folder 1 — «A catalogue of books sent to Nangemy, Charles County, Maryland, By Mr. D'Emilliane towards the Laymans' Library there — (37 titles, multiple copies. Receipt by Gabriel d'Emillianne), 1701.»

(l) Rev. William Pusey Painter, The History of Durham Parish, Charles County, Maryland, 1692-1892, Maryland, 1894: p. 6, «... [the Rev. George Tubman] remained in charge until 1699 when he resigned. He was succeeded in 1701, by the Rev. Gabriel D'Emilliane who also had charge of the two parishes [Durham and Port Tobacco], remaining two years. Next came the Rev. John Frazier ...».

(m) Archives of Maryland Online (William Hand Browne, Edward C. Papenfuse, et al. Eds., Archives of Maryland, Baltimore & Annapolis, Maryland, 1883-) :

Volume 24, pp. 288 & 289, Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, 27th June 1702: «... The reverend Dr Gabriel D Emilliane Mr Sewell ...»;

Volume 24, pp. 298 & 299, Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, 26th June 1702): «... The Humble Address of the Clergy of Maryland. ... Your most Affectionate and humble Servants ... Hugh Jones Gabriell D. Emilliane ...»;

Volume 25, pp. 133 & 134, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1702: «... Then was read Mr Gabriel D'Emillian Minister of Nangemy & Port Tobacco Parishes Representation ... To their Honours the President & Council for the Province of Maryland now assembled May it please your Honours Gabriel D'Emilliane Minister of Nangemy & Port Tobacco Parishes in Charles County your Honours most humble Petitioner does humbly represent that the Aforesaid Parishes being not able to give him a competent Subsistence as having the Charge of a Family & having Experienced that the said Revenue is not Sufficient to supply him with necessarys whereby he hath been obliged to Run in debt thirty three Pounds in one year tho he was Reduced next to a starving condition with his Family the last Summer ... He knows that some are of Opinion that he can do some considerable good among the papists there Been formerly a Romanist himself ... The Board being very sensible of the said Mr D'Emillians good Qualifications & that the Parishioners are very desirous to have him ordered that a Presentation to the said Parish of Christ Church in Calvert County be drawn for him ...»;

Volume 25, p. 161, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1703: «... That the Quakers & Papists be restrained from seducing her Majestys Protestant Subjects Annapolis May 27th 1703 Rects ... Robert Owen ... Gabriel D'Emilliane ...».

(n) Personal communication from the Reverend Thomas Rightmyer: «Last reference [to d'Emilliane in the parish register of Christ Church] is December 27, 1713, when he officiated at the marriage of John Gudgrace and Mary Grover.»

(o) Archives of Maryland Online : Volume 29, pp. 459 & 460, Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, 8th October 1714: «The Petition of Several Gentlemen of the Clergy who have officiated in the absence of Mr Gabriel D'Emiliane late Rector of Christ's Church parish in Calvert County ... And the Petition of Ann D'Emiliane his Widow being read setting forth that whereas her late Husband had the leave of this Board & also of the Church Wardens and Vestry of his Parish to go for England on promise of some other Clergyman to officiate in his Absence Which has been complyed with. And It now being supposed that he is shipwrecked She humbly prays that for the Relief of her & his three Children [Elizabeth, Gabriel, and Ann] the 40lb tob° p poll arising in that Parish should be payed her ... Which being thought reasonable Ordered that the Sherriff of Calvert County pay unto the sd Mr Emilianes Administratrix the whole 40 lb tob° arising in that Parish this year for the better Support and relief of the sd Mr D'Emilianes Widow & Children the sd Parish not being adjudged to be Vacant before this Instant ...».

(The widower Gabriel d'Emilliane married his second wife, Ann Young, on 31st January 1704; his lineage continued through the surviving children: Ann, who married James Kingsbury, Jr., about 1725; and Elizabeth, who married John Childs on 31st December 1730.)

(p) Personal communication from the Reverend Thomas Rightmyer: «Inventory of his [D'Emilliane's] estate 1714 (Inv. Accts. Calvert Lib[rary] 36.B folio 79): Woman servant £10.0.0, Negro man £60.0.0, 2 horses & a mare £5.0.0, 5 cows, 1 heifer, 3 yearlings £12.0.0, 3 sows & 10 pigs £1.10.0, 3 tables & 12 leather chairs £3.10.0, Parcel of books £1.0.0, Feather bed & furniture £8.0.0, Trunks & (?) box £1.15.0, Total £291.10.2.»

4. Incidentally, as David Farrer convincingly demonstrated some twelve years ago («The identification of Gabriel d'Emiliane as Antonio Gavin», Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin, Queensland, 21, 7-8, 1995), and in contrast to the belief of many cataloguers, Gabriel d'Émilliane and Antonio Gavin are not one and the same person. The latter, a Spanish priest who converted to Protestantism shortly after his arrival in London from Saragossa around 1714, was licensed to officiate in 1715, printed his first sermon in 1716 (Conversion de las tres potencias del alma, ..., Delage, London), published several antipapist tracts, most notably A Master-Key to Popery,..., Dublin, 1724 (translated into French by François-Michel Janiçon as Le passe-par-tout de l'Église Romaine ; ou, histoire des tromperies des prêtres et des moines en Espagne, Stephens, London, 1726), and subsequently served as a curate in Dublin, a military chaplain in Gibraltar (1733), and as a minister in various parishes in the American Colonies from 1735 until his death in 1750 (see John K. Nelson, A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishioners in Anglican Virginia, 1690–1776, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2001, passim). Lastly, there is no evidence that Gavin used Emilliane as a pseudonym.

5. I am grateful to: David Farrer, senior archivist at the University of Monash in Melbourne, for a copy of his aforementioned article; Robert Netz, director of the Centre de recherches sur l'histoire du livre au dix-sept siècle in Lausanne, for a most fruitful exchange by e-mail; and the Reverend Thomas Rightmyer, director of the American Colonial Anglican Clergy Project, for supplementary details.

6. R. Peters' Home page.
[October 2006]